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Where’s Pablo? The Mid-Century Mosaics of Picasso

On 07, Jun 2012 | 44 Comments | In Uncategorized | By Nancie

Pablo Picasso "Tete Fauve" (Faun Head) Executed by Hjalmar Boyensen, circa 1957-58

Pablo Picasso – the Cote d’Azur in the 1950s – an enchanting younger lover  – and mosaics.  Historian, educator and artist Lillian Sizemore has put together all the elements of yet another marvelous mosaic mystery – the missing mosaics of Pablo Picasso.  MAN is very excited to publish this intriguing story about how one of the 20th century’s most influential artists explored the mosaic medium.  Enjoy – Nancie

By Lillian Sizemore    May 31, 2012

While reading a 1963 copy of Mosaics: Design, Construction and Assembly by British mosaicist, Robert Williamson, I discovered Pablo Picasso’s mid-century mosaics. Williamson published several pages of these works, some of which are reproduced in this article. Picasso (1881-1973) is renowned for his extraordinary artistic experiments in painting, sculpture, printmaking, ceramics, collage and even stage design; but I’d never heard Picasso’s name associated with mosaics. I’m excited to report he did not leave this stone unturned, collaborating with mosaicist Hjalmar Boyesen, who executed Picasso’s designs.

A sample page from British mosaicist robert Williamson's 1963 book. At left, Picasso's sketch showing color choices; at right, Boyesen's finished work. The mosaics published in this chapter would have been "of the moment" having been made sometime between 1955 - 1959. This would indicate that Boyesen and Williamson were contemporary colleagues, both workng in mosaic during these years.

According to a Dorset (UK) newspaper article, artist Hjalmar Boyesen and Picasso became acquainted when Boyesen served as an American soldier during the liberation of Paris in August, 1944. Picasso’s first major mosaic work in this medium was the 1.5 ft. x 4 ft. plaque shown below. Though the photo is in black and white, Williamson’s accompanying description states, ”it has been done in six shades of grey, one large area of white, and several smaller areas of color.” The inspiration for this design seems to have been taken from a filmstrip or photographer’s contact sheet. The Cannes Film Festival, the many celebrities who visited his Cannes studio, and Picasso’s own cause célèbre were undoubtedly influencing his work.

Attributed as Picasso's first design for a mosaic. 1.5 x 4 ft. executed by Hjalmar Boyesen.

Cote d’Azur in the 1950s

The decade after the World War II was a very prolific time for Picasso. It was in the Cote d’Azur he began drawing on the Mediterranean sources that had inspired him in earlier years. The warm, sunlit coast and a return to family life renewed Picasso’s inspiration after the devastation of the war years. In the mid-50s, Picasso was living in the villa La Galloise, located in the village of Vallauris outside of Cannes in the south of France. From 1943 to 1953 he lived with painter, Françoise Gilot, (b. 1921 -) with whom he had two children, Claude born in 1947 and Paloma in 1949.  They never married because Picasso’s former wife would not grant a divorce.  Yet by 1953, Gilot had had enough, took the children and left Picasso.  He was angry, as Gilot was his first (and only) partner to leave him. Not to be undone, Picasso had set his eye on yet another young lover…

Picasso and Jacqueline Roque frolic in the villa "La Californie" in Cannes, 1957. © David Douglas Duncan

Picasso was relentless in his serial pursuit of women decades younger than himself. Picasso met Gilot when she was 21 and he was 61. Once Gilot left Picasso, his new muse and lover became Jacqueline Roque, (1927–1986), a beautiful and vivacious ingénue 46 years his junior. Jacqueline worked at the local Madoura Pottery where Picasso was furiously making ceramics by the thousands. Even at age 76, Picasso still possessed an unceasing capacity for making art. Besides his ceramic editions, Picasso was creating a series of over 50 versions of Velasquez’s Las Meninas, a painting depicting the Spanish court of Philip IV of Spain in 1656. The mosaics date from this same intensely active period.

"Meninas after Velasquez", 1957 Oil on canvas 194 x 260 cm Museu Picasso de Barcelona/Succession Picasso/DACS 2009

Velázquez "Las Meninas" 1656 Oil on canvas 318 x 276 cm. Photograph: Bridgeman Art Library

By the summer of 1957, Picasso began making sketches specifically for mosaics, working closely with Hjalmar Boyesen in the mosaicist’s Cannes studio. Boyesen was a mosaicist with a penchant for abstraction. At the time of this writing, it’s unknown how he came to work with Picasso in southern France. There was a vibrant artistic community in Cannes, and their friendship was already established from Paris. Was it perhaps Boyesen who suggested the medium to Picasso? Did Picasso see Boyesen’s work and decide he wanted to work in the medium as well? Did Picasso invite Boyesen to Cannes?

Picasso’s mosaic panels were executed by Boyesen, assisted by an emerging British sculptor, Ralph Brown, who was on a study sabbatical in Italy that year and came to Cannes to work in Boyesen’s atelier. That summer in Cannes, the young sculptor was making his way around the Italian and Paris art scene, meeting Giacometti and many Italian sculptors of the day. The famous sculptor Henry Moore collected some of Brown’s early works and helped to launch his life long art career. Ralph Brown went on to teach at the Royal College of Art and maintained a life long sculpting career.

Mosaicist Hjalmar Boyesen in his Cannes studio kneels in front of a Picasso panel in progress with bags of stone and smalti (glass) at his feet. Circa 1957.

Sculptor Ralph Brown, shown here working in his Digwell Studio, UK, was very inspired after his summer in southern France and Italy. Circa 1959. Photo: Jane Gate. Courtesy Pangolin London exhibition catalogue.

Missing Mosaics

There are millions of images of Picasso’s work on the internet, yet multiple searches do not produce one single image source for these mosaics.  One wonders why?  Where are the rest of them?  Who bought them? Do they still exist and if so, where are they?  One website suggests an estimated 350 of his works have been stolen, more than any other artist. Are the mosaics among those missing assets?

The Williamson book does not indicate the materials used in the mosaics, but legal documents (more on this below) make reference to a fabrication in stone and colored glass. The pieces were set using the direct method onto wood panel, (as shown in the photo above) a common substrate of the era. The outline was marked out in paint.  One wonders if Picasso himself painted onto the surface or if Hjalmar was transferring Picasso’s smaller sketch onto the board. The pieces possess a certain calm, grounded feeling, in no small part due to Boyesen’s choice of setting style. The works are done in opus tessalatum, a linear setting matrix with the tesserae (pieces) cut to the same general size overall. Round faces, however, called out for a concentric setting pattern, with some directional, curvilinear intervention as needed, seen in the example of Tete Barbue.

"Tete Barbue" (Bearded Head) 1957. Executed by Hjalmar Boyesen

With their child-like simplicity, Picasso’s designs capture a light-hearted quality. The distinct outlines reference his famous “napkin sketches”, though more likely, they were following on the series of 180 drawings of clowns and circus performers known as the Verve Suite and of course his Madoura ceramics, which also used the face as a dominant theme.

"Visage aux mains" (Face with hands) 1956. Ceramic. 42 cm dia. White earthenware clay. Numbered edition of 100. Inscribed "Madoura/Edition Picasso" on verso. Image via: Denis Bloch.

"Visage Etoille" (Star Face) Executed by Hjalmar boyesen, circa 1957. Perhaps a reference to the parade of "stars" at Cannes in the 50s.

Family Friends

How Boyesen and his artist wife, Dorothy, came to live and work in Cannes during the 50s is unclear, but they were on very friendly terms with Picasso and Jacqueline. The couples often visited and Picasso celebrated the birth of the Boyesen’s first son in 1958 by sketching Dorothy holding their newborn during a visit to the villa. “I think my husband was so thrilled to have a son that had to be the first thing he did – showing him to Picasso,” said Dorothy in a 2010 news article. “Picasso did his bit to make us feel we had done something extraordinary – as if we’d done something nobody else had ever done.” She added, “I didn’t know he was sketching me until it was time to go.We were saying our goodbyes and he gave me the sketch. I was very excited.”

Mosaicist Hjalmar Boyesen's wife, Dorothy, holds the sketch made by Picasso after the birth of their first son in Cannes, France. Photo:, 2010

Mosaics Held by U.S. Customs

Post-War America was burgeoning with enthusiasm for modern art—abstract works by Pollock, Rothko and deKooning were on the rise—and a lively interaction between Europe and New York was afoot. But the antiquated custom laws were in need of reform if the collectors and museums were to build their collections. Though Picasso’s work had stirred a fair amount of controversy over the years, it was in demand. In this case, it was not the content, but the object itself that piqued debate. When Picasso’s 3 ft. x 2.5 ft. mosaic panel titled Les Joutes was shipped to the USA in 1958, it became the object of a court ruling. U.S. Customs tied up Picasso’s mosaic for over two years, meanwhile identifying it as “bits of glass on stone.”  Certain forms of art carried no taxations, while others were heavily taxed due to the “manufacture” of materials used. Mosaic, sculpture, and collage were among the art forms levied at this time.

"Les Joutes" (The Jousters) Executed by Hjalmar Boyesen. "Les Joutes Nautique" was a traditional nautical jousting tournament popular in souther France.

“Picasso was quite annoyed by all this,” stated an attorney representing the petitioner in a N.Y. Times article of May 1959. “He’s annoyed the U. S. Customs Inspectors can be so—shall we say—uncultured”. By September 1959, a unanimous act of Congress amended the Tariff Act of 1930 so the works of art were allowed to enter the country duty free.

Picasso camps it up as Popeye in his littered Cannes bedroom standing in front of a bulletin board pinned with sketches for ceramics or mosaics. He often worked from bed. Photo: André Villers, 1957. Picasso gave Villers his first Rolleiflex camera in 1953.

End of an Era

The decadent, non-stop party atmosphere of the Cote d’Azur began to take its toll on Picasso’s increasingly private vision. Star-struck journalists were persistent in demanding his time for interviews, while a constant stream of visitors and dinner parties were de rigueur.

Brigitte Bardot visits Pablo Picasso during the 1956 International Film Festival at Cannes. Note ceramics stacked on the floor and painted tiles in the foreground. Photo: ©Jerome Brierre/Getty Images

The events that brought mosaic making and Picasso’s relationship with Boyesen to a close are yet to be discovered. We do know that by the late 1950s Jacqueline was fiercely protective, becoming known as a “gatekeeper” amongst his friends. Perhaps in Jacqueline’s attempts to shield Picasso, Boyesen and Dorothy were no longer able to maintain the friendship or working relationship they had once enjoyed. Perhaps the young family departed for England to join Boyesen’s assistant Ralph Brown and the mosaic book author Robert Williamson?

During that decade, Picasso and Jacqueline moved from the villa La Galloise in Valluarius, to La Californie in Cannes, up to the Chateau of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence, where he could work undisturbed. He was quite wealthy by this point, and acquired the magnificent Chateau property in 1958.  He moved his vast art collection to the Chateau, which they occupied between 1959 and 1962.  Subsequently they moved to Mougins, where Picasso spent the last 12 years of his life. It was in Mougins he died, so the story goes, at his own dinner party. Ever the bon vivant, his last words were “Drink to me, drink to my health, you know I can’t drink any more.” It is at the Chateau however, that both Picasso and Roque are buried, and the property remains in the family estate.

Picasso’s Influence on Mosaics Today

For now, Picasso’s mosaic works seem an enigmatic flicker as it appears art historians have generally passed over this aspect of Picasso’s artistic oeuvre. By publishing this investigation, perhaps further connections to Hjalmar Boyesen’s mosaic collaboration with Picasso will surface. Meanwhile, there is no doubt that Picasso continues to inspire mosaicists today—his paintings, and even his famous face, remain a source for interpretation by artists worldwide.

Portrait of Picasso from the Photo Line by Asarota, a French mosaic company

Giulio Pedrana "Girl Before A Mirror" (after Pablo Picasso) 2012 13 x 105 cm.

Jose Morales "Girl Before A Mirror" (after Pablo Picasso) 2012. Jose is a participant artist in the Piece by Piece Project of Los Angeles, a non-profit mosaic training school where the author is a frequent visiting artist.


A third-year student at the Scuola Mosaicisti del Friuli in Spilimbergo, Italy, works on a group project of a full-scale mosaic interpretation of Picasso's "Guernica". 2006



Williamson, Robert, Mosaics: Design, Construction and Assembly, 1963, Crosby Lockwood, London, Hearthside Press, NY (out of print – but available from used dealers)

“The Day Picasso Sketched Lytchett Matravers Mum”, Juliette Astrup, The Daily Echo, 10 March 2010, accessed 14 May, 2012

“Ralph Brown at Eighty: Early Decades Revisited”, Pangolin London, 2009, PDF exhibition catalogue

New York Times, 22 May 1959, p. 18, col. 3

“Congress Rehabilitates Modern Art,” W. Derenberg, D. Baum, N.Y. University of Law, 34 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1228, 1959

Picasso on Wikipedia:  Accessed 14 May 2012

“Picasso in Vallauris”, Hans Bendix, Harpers, March 1956, page 44.

Françoise Gilot interview in Vogue, June 2012

Verve Suite

Video:  Scene from ‘Visit to Picasso’, a documentary by Paul Haesaert . Shows Picasso live painting on glass in his Vallauris atelier, 1949.

Picasso’s ceramics from Madoura Pottery – Denis Bloch Website

“Pablo Picasso’s love affair with women”, Mark Hudson, The Telegraph, 13 Feb 2009, accessed 19 May 2012

“At the Court of Picasso”, John Richardson, Vanity Fair, November 1999  Accessed 19 may 2012

VIDEO: Pablo Picasso Biography – 9 parts on youtube   Part 8 addresses the late 50’s, the Velasquez paintings and images of his ceramics.

Charlie Rose interview with Françoise Gilot and John Richardson, 17 May 2012

Glass portrait of Picasso, by French mosaic manufacturer Asarota:

Giulio Pedrana on etsy.

Jose Morales:

Scuola Mosaicisti del Friuli,  Teachers and students of Spilimbergo Mosaic School created the Picasso mosaic. The 8 x 4 meter “Guernica” mosaic was installed at Madrid’s Atocha train station on the anniversary of the 2004 bombings, on March 11, 2006.




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  1. R. Perkins

    Im quite certain i know exactly where the panel with the 4 faces (suggested as the first Picasso mosaic in your article)is. I see it several times each week. I read your article to the owner and he is interested in sharing photos and finding n out more of the history of this piece. He knew that it is a Picasso, but wad surprised to learn that these Picasso mosaics are “lost”. Please feel free to contact me if you are interested in photos. There are actually 2 large white areas and more color than the description implies.

  2. Caroline N.Z.

    Dear Lilian Sizemore,

    Thank you for your interesting writing! I work at an art museum in Denmark, and I was very surprised to see one of the art works from our collection in your article! ‘Star face’ from 1957 has belonged to us since 1967 and is now to see in an exhibition. Our museum, Kunsten – Museum of Modern Art Aalborg, is a museum designed by the world famous Finnish architect Alvar Aalto and has a great number of works of modern art. As I have heard, the former director of the museum, Lars Rostrup Boyesen, used the budget of a whole year to buy the magnificent mosaic back in 1967 🙂

    For more information or pictures of the mosaic you are very welcome to contact me!

    Best Regards,
    Caroline Nymark Zachariassen


  3. Tom Lewis

    Hi there Lillian,

    My wife and I have two panels made by Boyesen – one of them signed on the reverse. with a label of a Picasso mosaic on the reverse. Don’t know if you are interested in seeing a photo of them? They were made at the right time when I believe he was working with Picasso.


    • Erica DeHaan

      Hi Tom,

      I purchased a mid century mosaic panel last year from an estate and I’d be curious to compare it to yours. After reading Lillian’s article, I’ve spent some time researching mine and have not yet found a decisive answer to who created it. My mosaic has a ‘B’ stamped on the back side of the panel but no signature I could find. I’d appreciate hearing more about your pieces and seeing if mine are anything similar to yours.

      Thanks so much,
      Erica DeHaan

      • Mike Lanahan

        Erica and Tom,
        I recently purchased a mid-century mosaic which, after finding this article, I think may be a product of the Boyesen-Picasso collaboration. Like Erica, I am trying to get information on the responsible artist.

        If you have interest in sharing information that you have gathered in the last couple of years I would be grateful.

  4. neil farrin

    Hi Lillian, thanks for a wonderful article. I was fortunate to spend time with Hjalmar when he briefly taught art at a public school I was attending in England. A character who refreshingly couldn’t have been further removed from the rest of the traditional teaching staff. He was an inspiration in what was an incredibly disciplined environment and taught me how to create mosaics in the manner used during his time working with Picasso among other art forms and went a long way towards shaping my life, an inspiring character.

    • Lillian Sizemore

      Dear Neil, How wonderful to have your perspective included in the commentary on this piece of history!
      It’s great to hear your reflection on Mr. Boyesen’s innovative and creative teaching. How would you characterise the “manner used” for the Picasso mosaic making? Can you describe it a bit more? Do you still make mosaic? thank you for your comment and feel free to message me directly via my website. all best LS

  5. Lilian Broca

    Dear Lillian, aka Detective Tessera and Miss Marble,
    This is an excellent article and a fascinating revelation for me. Thank you!

    • Lillian Sizemore

      Hi Lilian, thanks for taking time to comment. Finding this mosaic work by Picasso was a revelation for me too, and this story certainly highlights the passing over of mosaic art by the “art world”. It was common at the time to work with master mosaicists, so even though Picasso did not execute the mosaic works, they are his design and signed by him. Ironically, critics and art historians have lavished more attention on his “napkin sketches” than the mosaic works. I assume these works are held in private collections, or buried in the bowels of some museum. I haven’t sleuthed that far into the provenance yet, and hope this article can help to uncover more information. ~Lillian S.

      • Freya Boyesen

        Hi Lillian. Hjalmar’s daughter here. Great article and good bit of unearthing. Would be interested to talk to you. All the best. Freya.

        • Erica DeHaan

          Hi Freya,
          I have a mosaic panel that I purchased last summer and I would like to compare it with your father’s work that he did with Picasso. Is there an online source that you would suggest I look? Any information you can give me would be so appreciated.

          Thank you,
          Erica DeHaan

  6. My husband and I are both artists (he oil painting/scultpure – me mosaics) and Picasso is one of our favorites. It makes total sense that he would have done mosaics and I truly enjoyed you bringing it into the light! Great sluthing!

    • Thanks for reading Denise. It’s good to learn my work shed new light on your favorite artist.

  7. Fascinating, Lillian! Thank you so much for such a well-researched article. I also would love to see more info turn up!

    • Hello Dianne, thank you for reading. I’m thrilled with the enthusiastic response to the article, and hope you’ll stay tuned. We did in fact find one panel that had been traded at a European auction i recent years. We’re planning to release an update, later this summer. The article appeared today on the main page of (we’re very excited about that check it out)- so the more this article travels within the art world circles, the more likely we’ll be able to learn more. thanks for taking time to comment ~ Lillian

  8. Great work, Lillian. I think that I always assumed that Picasso had done mosaics, considering the great depth of materials and processes that he explored. Thank you for sharing the actual work in such an engaging style. Completely off subject here…. is that I think that Ben Kingsley needs to portray Picasso at that stage of his life!

    • hi Karen, thanks for reading and commenting. Yes Ben Kinglsey as Picasso would be amazing. I do believe Antonio Banderas has scooped a role – albeit depicting an earlier phase of PP’s life.

      Picasso worked with so many other artisans to execute his ideas in a variety of media. Another example are the 1954 Sylvette sculptures in Rotterdam, predecessors to the Boyesen panels. The sculpture executed by sculptor Carl Nesjar, which are not mosaic but use a technique with concrete and raw pebbles. Do you think the sculpture perhaps can begin to shine a light on the mosaic aspect of Picasso’s work and perhaps piqued Picasso’s interest in a “tessellated” medium? One thing they have in common, is that the sculpture, like the mosaic panels, were made from Picasso’s drawings being interpreted by his artist friends, in THEIR primary medium. I found this note: they call the technique concrete sgrafitto: (

      thanks for reading – Lillian

  9. I saw some of his mosaics in Japan a few years ago and while I had known about the ceramics, the mosaics were a surprise. layered glass on glass with clear glass over the top with was painted in translucent paint

    • hi marian, see reply below, and thank you again for reading!

  10. Fabulous article, and completely new knowledge to me. Thank you

    • Nancie

      New knowledge for us all, Helen. Although, given how prolific Picasso was, we probably should have expected there would be panels lurking somewhere.

    • Hi Helen, thanks for reading and commenting, I was excited to share a bit of mosaic history that seems to have been hidden in the shadows. More to come, I have so many stories to tell!

  11. What a lively tale – thoroughly researched and engagingly told. An era gone, but recently enough that is easily relatable and tantalizingly close. Thanks for including a few contemporary references too. Sooner or later, further info will arise. Especially as Picasso’s prices are so high, there’s bound to be interest for no other reason than the commercial. Thanks to you both!

    • Nancie

      Thanks, George. I love the way Lilian has put these works into the context of Pablo’s life at the time the works were being made. I think that is one of her greatest gifts as a researcher.

    • Thank you Geroge and Nancie for the thoughtful comments. I love writing a story that can tell us more about the inner life and the times in which the art was being made. The “Dolce Vita” period is so compelling, the glamorous lifestyle and parties. We’ll be posting an update soon George, stay tuned.

  12. Nice job Lillian. Great new information. I was glued to the screen reading about this fascinating vignette about the prolific Picasso. (I already knew his turbulent love life). Thanks for doing the research. Yes, we are lucky to have you.

    • thank you Ute! great to see you here at MAN. Doing the research for this story was fascinating, and the timing is right with the François Gilot show in NYC right now.

  13. I love learning more about the world of mosaics. I found this article so interesting and want you all to know how much I appreciate your time and efferts that are going into this site. I look forward to reading it each week.
    Thank you,
    Suzanne Demeules

    • Nancie

      Thank you for the lovely comment, Suzanne. Hearing from people like you is hugely motivational. I do believe that the great thinkers/writers/makers like those in this newsletter deserve the world’s attention! Feel free to share with all the arts lovers you know.

    • Hi Suzanne, I really appreciate your taking time to read and comment on the Picasso article, and hope you return time and again to check in with our latest stories!

  14. I saw some Picasso glass on glass mosaics in Japan – layered coloured glass on glass with clear glass and transparent paint outlines on top.

    • Nancie

      Those would be great to see, Marian. Do you know where we might find photos?

    • Wow, that’s cool, Marian! I’m hearing about some work labeled as “mosaic”. Stay tuned for an update in the future. In the meantime, I hope more will surface about these missing panels. As Nancie said, let us know if you post any photos or have a URL link you can post here in the comment area. thank you for reading!

  15. Enthralling story! Hopefully those mosaics turn up somewhere, so we might at least see a modern photograph of them showing the color patches–however small.

    • Nancie

      We hope something reappears too, Vickey. Now that the quest has been thrown into cyberspace, we could be amazed at what turns up.

    • Thanks for reading Vickey, great to see you here at MAN, and hope you will find more related mosaicology to enjoy. Yes, We are tracking new references and will post a proper update soon.

    • Thanks for reading Vickey, great to see you here at MAN, and hope you’ll enjoy more mosaicology. Yes, we’re tracking new references and will post a proper update to this story soon.

  16. What an enjoyable mystery!! Who knew?
    Thanks so much for your research, passion and writing and thanks to Nancie for such a great venue!

    • Nancie

      Who knew? is right, Lisa. Lillian has an amazing ability to dig up great stories and make them come alive for the reader. We’re lucky to have her.

    • Hi Lisa, thanks for reading! yes, I’m earning my “magnifying glass” as Detective Tessera, aka Miss Marble, and there will be more mosaic mysteries to come. Thanks for commenting!

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